The fascinating concept of a Zero-Knowledge proof has been introduced by Goldwasser,
Micali and Rackoff (1985).
Zero-knowledge proofs are both convincing and yet yield nothing beyond the validity of
the assertion being proven.
Their applicability in the domain of cryptography is vast: they can be used
to force malicious parties to behave according to a predetermined protocol and they
found applications in the constructions of secure cryptosystems and digital signature schemes.
The purpose of this school is to give PhD students and others
with a general interest in cryptography a deeper understanding of the
notion of zero knowledge and of its use in cryptography.
Main subjects covered:
one-way functions/permutations, trapdoor functions/permutations, indistinguishability, PRG, hard-core bits, commitments.
Basic Zero Knowledge I:
interactive proofs, definitions (auxiliary input ZK, CZK, SZK, PZK), arguments vs. proofs, black box vs. non-black box,
honest verifier ZK, need for randomness and interactions.
Basic Zero Knowledge II:
Zero knowledge for NP, proof of knowledge, witness indistinguishability.
Sequential composition for auxiliary input and non-auxiliary input, constant round ZK, lower bound on number of rounds.
Non-Black Box Zero Knowledge:
Universal arguments, FLS-paradigm, Barak's construction.
NIZK for all NP, NIZK proof of knowledge, ZAP.
Variations of ZK.
Applications of NIZK:
The course is organized by the ECRYPT Network of Excellence,
supported by the European Commission and will be
October 28-November 3, 2006.
A limited number of stipends for participation are available
for students from non-ECRYPT institutions.
|| Sat 28
|| Sun 29
|| Mon 30
|| Tue 31
|| Wed 01
|| Thu 02
|| Fri 03
|08:00 - 09:00
|09:30 - 13:00
|13:00 - 14:00
|14:30 - 18:00
|19:30 - 20:30
||Reception (18:00 - 21:00)
Welcome Buffet (19:30 - 21:00)
Each lecture is around 3 hours long and includes a coffee break.
You can find in Oded Goldreich's homepage useful lecture notes, books and papers.
*The free half-days can be used for studying (rooms and coffee breaks will be available) and/or for excursions.
How to participate:
The registration form is not on-line anymore.
A number of ECRYPT
grants for the participation will be offered to students from
Under special circumstances, participants
may receive partial support for travel costs.
Please note: these grants are intended for students and young
researchers with real financial difficulties. Applicants should first
verify that no local funding (eg. research grants) is available to them
How to apply: fill and send by email, the following form, a curriculum vitae and possibly one recommendation letter to zkschool at gmail.com.
Applicants will be notified well in advance of the events.
||October 28, 2006.
||November 3, 2006.
The school will be held in medieval town of Bertinoro.
This town is in Emilia Romagna about 50km east of Bologna at an elevation of about
220m. Here is a map
putting it in context.
The meeting will be held in a redoubtable ex-Episcopal
fortress that has been converted by the University of Bologna into
a modern conference center with computing facilities and Internet access.
How to Reach Bertinoro. Read also here.
Bus schedule (f = working days, F = non-working days, G = both working and non-working days, S = school day):134; 135.
- Roma Fiumicino airport (FCO), then 3 trains from the airport to forli
(see www.trenitalia.com, from fiumicino aeroporto to forli, the main train
is from Roma main train station to bologna) then bus/taxi to Bertinoro.
- Milano Malpensa (MPX), then bus or train+subway to Milano train
station, then 2 trains to forli (see www.trenitalia.com, from milano to
forli, the main train is from Milano main train station to Bologna) then
bus/taxi to Bertinoro.
- Bologna (BLQ), see here.
- Forli (FRL), then bus/taxi to Bertinoro.